History of the Rise and Retreat of Islamic Power in Europe

Ottoman Turkey is the last existence of Islamic dynasty in Europe in modern times.

Islam has been in power in Europe for centuries. The power of Islam comes and goes, leaving a record in history, some leaving black incisions and other fragments leaving a precious heritage for the advancement of Europe, though often rejected.

In his opening, Ibn Khaldun asserted that if God were willing to muzzle civilization, they would be tested by how consistent and committed they had value and morality in times of crime everywhere. "This is what happened to the collapse of Islamic civilization in Andalusia, Spain," Ibn Khaldun wrote.

In the reign of the Umayyads (661-750) the expansion of Islamic Khilafah ( the governmental institution in Islam) was conducted in the east, north, and west. The expansion to the north was done by attacking the Byzantine Empire.

According to Taufik Abdullah in his book The Encyclopedia Thematic World of Islam, it is explained that the Umayyads also extended their territory to the Iberian Peninsula (Andalusia or Spain) controlled by the Gothia Nation. The seizure of the territory was led by warlord Tariq bin Ziyad. He managed to conquer the City of Cordoba, Granada, and Toledo which is the capital of the Visigoth.

Furthermore, the Umayyads succeeded in conquering Sevilla, Zaragoza, and Barcelona. The area of Aragon and Castilla also bowed. So go northeast to the Pyrenees. Conquest stalled because the Caliph al-Walid summoned troops to return to Damascus.

The Umayyad's power founded by Mu'awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan lasted only about 90 years. Many factors caused the Umayyads' weakness and downfall. First, prolonged conflict in Umayyad. The situation is exacerbated by the emergence of some weak, wasteful, or wicked caliphs. This creates a sense of hatred towards society and ulama, so the authority of the central government is increasingly damaged.

By the time of the Abbasid dynasty, Islam had also triumphed in Europe. However, according to Finer, SE (1999-01-01) in The History of Government from the Earliest Times:

Volume II, at the end of the eighth century the Abbasids were alienated and forced to surrender power over Al-Andalus (Spain) and Maghreb (Morocco). The political power of the caliphs largely ended with the appearance of Buwaihi and Turkish Seljuqs.

Although the Abbasid leadership of the vast Islamic empire was gradually reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over the Mesopotamian demes. The capital of Baghdad became the center of science, culture, philosophy, and discovery during the heyday of Islam.

Meanwhile, Marshall Hodgson, a historian of Islamic civilization in his book The Venture of Islam, said the collapse of the Abbasid dynasty was due to a shift in the orientation of the character of civilization that developed in the Islamic world. According to him, the tendency of militarism and the expansion of territory emerged as the main characteristic of Islamic civilization following the emergence of the supremacy of the Mongols and Turkish politics.

The modern era Reigning over six centuries, the Ottoman Turks became a major force calculated in history. Its power covers parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe. The peak of Ottoman glory took place during the reign of Sulaiman I (1520-1566). After that, the weaker because of internal insurgency and losing the war against the Europeans.

During the reign of the Ottoman Empire, there was an expansion of Islamic territory to the European mainland.

Bursa, a town on the shores of the Marmara Sea, can be controlled by Uthman and his son Orkhan in 1324. The city's inhabitants converted to Islam, Orkhan as Utsman's successor moved the capital to Bursa in 1326 after Uthman died.

In Orkhan's time, the Ottoman territory grew again with the entry of Turkeman territory into his lap. He subdued the City of Nicaea (Iznik) in 1331 and Nicomedia (Izmit) 1337. Orkhan could subdue Karasi in 1345 and control the territory between Edremit and Cyzicus bay that could reach the sea of Marmara.

Sulaiman Putra Orkhan succeeded in conquering the mainland of the Balkan Peninsula. In 1361 or during the time of Murad I, Adrianople in mainland Europe was conquered then renamed to Edirne. He can also master Philippopolis (Filipe), Macedonia (1387), Central Bulgaria, including Monastir (1382), Sofia (1385), and Nish (1386).

The Ottoman period of expansion into the Balkans and Central Europe between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. During this period Muslims spread to Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Greece.

The Ottoman expansion in Europe ended with their defeat in the Great Turkish War. In the Karlowitz Treaty (1699), the Ottoman Empire lost most of its conquests in Central Europe.

According to the Avalanche Press, for centuries the Ottoman Empire gradually lost almost all regions of Europe, until its collapse in 1922.

According to Taufik Abdullah in his Thematic Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, the collapse of the Ottoman Dynasty in Europe began after the reign of Sulaiman I or in the 15th century. At this time, the Ottoman Empire could only survive enemy attacks and could only expand a little territory. This is because the great kingdom is led by a weak sultan. Unlike the previous sultans. This condition is exploited by European countries to expand into the Islamic world.

Many factors cause decline and destruction. Among other things, the area is so large that it is difficult to manage properly because of many problems to be solved, the emergence of injustice, the fertile practice of collusion and bribes with many gifts and rampant crime and crime.

The economic downturn was also a factor behind Ottoman decline, namely the cost of war so expensive that it reduced the state's finances.

Prolonged wars among other things occurred between the Ottoman and Hungarian forces.

Defeat after defeat experienced Ottoman troops who have been tired of war. Plus, the human factor that ignores the welfare of the people because the state officials busy with the problem of war so that people's lives neglected.

Moral damage also penetrated the palace in the presence of feasting with liquor and ladies who circled the state's dignitaries. The great work weakness also caused the interference of the wives of the sultan in governing the government.

Stephen Lee in Aspects of European History: 1494- 1789 mentions, the stagnation, and decline of the Ottoman Empire due to the decline in the leadership of the Sultan who lacked the ability to lead. In addition, the cast members of corrupt, greedy, hostile, and treacherous officials were also the determining factor in the collapse of the Ottoman empire.

Lee continued, the growing strength of the European military became stronger, also the cause of the defeat of the Ottoman army.

Jonathan Grant (1999) in the journal entitled "Rethinking The Ottoman 'Decline': Military Technology Diffusion in the Ottoman Empire, Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries" mentions, the collapse of the Ottoman Ottoman empire in Europe is also caused by the difficult economic conditions of the country. Irregularities occur everywhere, resulting in many poor people. War caused inflation, world trade moved direction, and worsening law and order.

The Islamic government in Europe is weakened not only by external factors of enemy attacks, but also the declining morality of Muslims.

The Last Trace of the Ottoman Caliphate

After the death of Sulaiman al-Qanun (1520-1566), there was a power struggle between his sons, leaving the Ottoman Turks regressed. Muhammad Syafii Antonio in the Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilization explains, during the time of Sultan Salim II (1566-1574) Ottoman Turkey experienced the defeat of European Christian allied forces in the Lepanto War. Then, during the time of Sultan Ahmad I (1603-11617) the Austrian army also managed to defeat the Ottoman Turks.

The condition of Ottoman Turkey worsened after Napoleon I General and the Emperor of France succeeded in controlling Egypt in 1798. Since then, Turkey has been dubbed The Sick Man of Europe because from day to day its government is getting weaker.

After that, heavy blows continued on the Ottoman Turks.

In the past, the Ottoman Turks defeated the European armies, but now the Ottoman Turks had to let their territory one by one be confiscated by the Europeans. France seized Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia in 1881.

Meanwhile, Italy occupied the Ottoman territory in North Africa in 1911, the British controlled Egypt in 1882 and Iraq in 1917. This opportunity was later used by some other territories to escape from Ottoman rule, for example, Romania, Greece, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Albania, and Macedonia.

Since European nations took over one region after another, Ottoman Turkey continues to decline. The condition was exploited by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk to proclaim the establishment of the secular Turkish Republic and end the Caliphate era in Islamic history as well as mark the end of Islamic rule in Europe.

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